The CRE2 Working Papers Series is an opportunity for CRE2 Faculty and Postdoctoral Affiliates and their co-authors to share research products that have not yet been published or submitted for publication. This series is part of our effort to build a robust repository of knowledge regarding research on race, ethnicity, and equity, and to generate vigorous debate and public dialogue around this research. CRE2 Working Papers are accessible here for viewing and retrieval by the public, news outlets, colleagues, and students. For more details on the Series and how to share your work, view the Working Paper guidelines.